hierarchy of needs theory
▪ Abraham Maslow (1943) developed this theory in the 1940s and 50s.
Needs are ordered according to Maslow’s hierarchy:
▪ Basic psychological needs
▪ Security requirements,
▪ Belonging and love, appreciation.
▪ He believes that the lowest unmet needs are the most solid and basic needs.
▪ Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is usually represented by a pyramid.
▪ Bottom most basic and most demanding (desire for self-determination)
update) at the summit.
▪ Since the introduction of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, it has become the most
▪ This idea summarizes five main types of requirements.
▪ A person is motivated to take action to meet their most pressing needs. existing needs
Encountered no motivation. When lower needs are fulfilled, a person pursues higher needs.
▪ Although Maslow never drew a pyramid to represent his hierarchy of needs, the shape does have a
became the most famous exponent of his ideas.
Herzberg-Two Factor Theory
▪ This term is also known as the theory of “motivation hygiene”.
According to this theory, a unique set of elements (hygiene factors) is believed to contribute to
▪ Instead, other factors (motivators) contribute to job satisfaction.
▪ Health factors; income, working conditions, working environment, safety and security.
▪ Motivational factors; personal development.
However, feelings of hygiene and motivation are not as opposed to each other as previously assumed.
People who are satisfied with their jobs focus on the work itself, while those who are dissatisfied with their jobs focus on the job itself
Her work focuses on defining the wider context of work.
▪ Dissatisfaction is not the opposite of satisfaction; it is the absence of any satisfaction.
▪ When hygiene factors in the workplace, such as
Inadequate income, working conditions, working environment, safety and protection.
▪ While motivators can increase job satisfaction, motivation depends on a factor
desire for personal development. As long as these aspects work, they can stimulate
Reach out to people on a higher level than usual.
According to Alderfer, there are three levels of needs: survival, connection and growth.
▪ Survival needs include Maslow’s physiological needs and safety needs.
▪ Connection is compatible with belonging and appreciation for others.
▪ Growth equals Maslow’s self-esteem plus self-actualization.
Likewise, both Maslow and Alderfer tried to explain what its different stages looked like
Needs become more or less important to people.
▪ Survival needs: Material needs are included in the term “survival needs”. in a
In short, it deals with a person’s physiology and physical health.
▪ Needs for connection: Relationships (family, peers or superiors), love and belonging are
Indispensable to the people, they strive for public approval. Maslow’s social needs and
The external component of esteem needs falls into this category.
Growth needs: Self-improvement, personal improvement, and advancement are part of this need
category. Includes intrinsic elements of Maslow’s self-actualization and esteem requirements
in this category.